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Stress and Heart Disease

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Updated June 05, 2014

Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. See About.com's Medical Review Board.

LET'S INVESTIGATE!
Fotografias de Rodolfo Velasco/Moment/Getty Images
For years it has been “common knowledge” that people who are under a lot of stress have an increased risk of heart disease. But is this common knowledge correct? And if so, what kinds of stress increase your risk of heart disease, how does it increase your risk, and what can you do about it?

At least three things have made it difficult to sort out the effects of stress on the heart: 1) people mean different things by “stress;” 2) some types of stress appear to be worse for the heart than others; and 3) how you respond to stress may be more important than the stress itself. In recent years we have learned a lot about stress and heart disease. This article and the links it provides will help you learn what you need to know about it.

What Do People Mean When They Say Stress Causes Heart Disease?

When people refer to “stress,” they are often talking about two different things: physical stress, or emotional stress. Medical scientists who write about stress and the heart are often talking about physical stress. But most of us, when we talk about stress and the heart, are usually referring to the emotional variety.

Physical Stress

Physical stress -– exercise or other forms of physical exertion –- places measurable and reproducible demands on the heart. This physical stress is generally acknowledged to be good. In fact, the lack of physical stress (i.e., a sedentary lifestyle) constitutes a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. So this kind of “stress” is usually considered to be beneficial to the heart.

If you have significant underlying heart disease, however, too much physical stress can be potentially dangerous. In a person who has coronary artery disease, exercise that is too intense can place demands on the heart muscle that the diseased coronary arteries cannot meet, and the heart becomes ischemic (i.e., starved for oxygen.) The ischemic heart muscle can cause either angina (chest pain), or a heart attack (actual death of cardiac muscle).

So physical stress -- that is, exercise -- is generally very good for you, and is generally to be encouraged (with appropriate precautions, if you have heart disease). And unless the exercise is extraordinarily excessive, physical stress does not actually cause heart disease.

Emotional Stress

Emotional stress is generally the kind of stress people are talking about when they say that stress causes heart disease. “It’s no wonder she died,” you’ll hear people say, “with all the trouble he put her through.” But is it true? Did Ed really kill Elsie with all his gambling and drinking and staying out all hours of the night?

Everyone –- even doctors -– have the notion that emotional stress, if it is severe enough or chronic enough, is bad for you. Most even believe that this kind of stress can cause heart disease. But scientific evidence that it actually does so has been hard to come by.

Recently, however, enough evidence has accumulated to be able to say that certain kinds of emotional stress, in certain people and under certain circumstances, appears to contribute to heart disease. Under the right (or rather, wrong) circumstances, emotional stress may contribute to the development of chronic heart disease, or can help precipitate acute cardiac problems in people who already have heart disease.

The following articles will tell you what you ought to know about stress-related heart disease, and how to prevent it.

Sources:

Denollet, J, Brutsaert, DL. Reducing emotional distress improves prognosis in coronary heart disease: 9-year mortality in a clinical trial of rehabilitation. Circulation 2001; 104:2018.

Rozanski, A, Bairey, CN, Krantz, DS, et al. Mental stress and the induction of silent myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1988; 318:1005.

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